Mental Health

Ensuring good mental health within the population and throughout the life course is about more than the absence of a mental disorder.

Mental health is a major contributor to overall wellbeing and quality of life within the population and is related to many determinants such as social networks, physical health and educational attainment.

Mental illness covers a range of symptoms and experiences, which can bring distress and reduces the ability to cope with the demands of everyday life.

Enabling people to develop and maintain good mental health is critically important to a healthy, happy and productive population.

Further information on mental health can be found in Public Health England’s Health Profiles.

Prevalence of Mental Health Conditions and Disorders

This section examines the prevalence of mental health problems and conditions in Coastal West Sussex CCG.

“Traditional” groupings (notably divided according to neurotic or psychotic symptoms) have been adopted. However, it is acknowledged that there is considerable debate relating to the categorisation of mental health problems and there are caveats on how well people fit into any one group or definition (comorbidity being quite common), as some people will experience both neurotic and psychotic symptoms.

Main Types of Mental Health Problems

  • Common Mental Health Problems/”Neurotic” relates to symptoms which are regarded as extreme forms of ‘normal’ emotional experiences such as depression, anxiety or panic. These are more frequently referred to as “common mental health problems”
  • Severe Mental Health Problems/”Psychotic” symptoms act to alter the perception of reality, symptoms may include hallucinations, delusions or paranoia, with the person seeing, hearing, smelling, feeling or believing things that no one else does
  • Organic Mental Health Problems relate to conditions that are caused directly by brain damage or due to brain malfunction, the most common of these is dementia

Common Mental Health Disorders

The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS 2007) provided estimates of the prevalence of common mental health conditions by age and gender. Common mental health conditions include mood and anxiety disorders (e.g. generalised anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).

The table below presents estimates of the number of people in Coastal West Sussex CCG who have a common mental health problem. These are presented by age and gender. These figures have been calculated by applying the prevalence estimates from the APMS 2007 to the 2014 CCG population estimates devised by the ONS.

Note: As some people may have more than one mental health problem (comorbidity) the total does not equal the sum of all specific mental health problems. These estimates reflect the adult (16+) population, and do not include estimates of childhood mental health conditions.

Prevalence of common mental health disorders: Coastal West Sussex CCG

Men 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+ all
Mixed anxiety and depressive disorder 1900 1720 2010 2790 2010 1180 960 13310
Generalised anxiety disorder 440 950 1270 1410 800 880 550 6560
Depressive episode 350 630 700 900 440 120 130 3670
All phobias 70 350 410 240 180 90 <5 1540
Obessive compulsive disorder 370 350 330 240 120 60 80 1740
Panic disorder 320 210 350 280 180 300 80 1930
Any CMD 3000 3400 4070 5000 3130 2270 1590 24120
Women 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+ all
Mixed anxiety and depressive disorder 2690 3480 2890 5210 2910 2920 2620 23700
Generalised anxiety disorder 1160 1060 1760 2920 1780 1220 1050 11420
Depressive episode 630 420 950 1790 710 540 760 6030
All phobias 590 590 810 800 710 140 70 4310
Obessive compulsive disorder 660 370 300 580 230 140 180 2800
Panic disorder 180 570 420 400 450 30 220 2590
Any CMD 4860 5680 5820 9180 5690 4550 4430 42450
All 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+ all
Mixed anxiety and depressive disorder 4590 5180 4840 7950 4950 4110 3630 36760
Generalised anxiety disorder 1620 2010 3020 4330 2540 2120 1600 17970
Depressive episode 990 1050 1650 2620 1180 640 920 9390
All phobias 680 910 1200 1060 870 190 60 5720
Obessive compulsive disorder 1040 720 630 780 310 190 250 4490
Panic disorder 500 770 740 640 620 320 310 4490
Any CMD 7880 9020 9850 14120 8730 6800 6090 66160
Note: Prevalence estimates by age and gender from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (2007) were applied to the CCG population (ONS Mid-Year Estimates 2014 (built up from LSOAs)) to produce these values. Figures are rounded to the nearest 10 so may not sum. As some people may have more than one problem the "any CMD" does not equate to the total of all specific problems. Source: Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (2007).

Personality Disorders

Personality disorders are conditions where an individuals’ personality characteristics can cause regular and long term problems in the way they cope with everyday life and interact with other people; anti-social personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are two types.

APMS (2007) describes these disorders as:

“ASPD is characterised by disregard for and violation of the rights of others. People with ASPD have a pattern of aggressive and irresponsible behaviour which emerges in childhood or early adolescence. They account for a disproportionately large proportion of crime and violence committed. ASPD was present in 0.3% of adults aged 18 or over (0.6% of men and 0.1% of women).”

“BPD is characterised by high levels of personal and emotional instability associated with significant impairment. People with BPD have severe difficulties with sustaining relationships, and self-harm and suicidal behaviour is common.”

In Coastal West Sussex CCG, approximately 1,130 adults aged 16-64 were estimated to have borderline personality disorder, and 850 with antisocial personality disorder.

Applying sex-specific prevalence rates of borderline personality disorder to the West Sussex population aged 16-64 years (by CCG)

Disorder % Males % Females % all Coastal West Sussex CCG Crawley CCG Horsham and Mid Sussex CCG West Sussex
Borderline Personality Disorder 0.3% 0.6% 0.4% 1,130 290 560 1,980
Antisocial personality disorder 0.6% 0.1% 0.3% 850 220 420 1,480
Note: Values have been rounded to the nearest 10. Totals may not sum due to rounding. Source: APMS 2007, 2014 mid-year population estimates

The presence of a personality disorder, notably antisocial personality disorder, may have considerable implications in the treatment and management of co-existing psychiatric and physical conditions. Co-existence of a personality disorder and another mental health problem is high.

Psychotic Disorders

“Psychoses are disorders that produce disturbances in thinking and perception severe enough to distort the perception of reality. The main types are schizophrenia and affective psychosis, such as bipolar disorder” (APMS 2007).

The overall prevalence of psychotic disorder was found to be 0.4% (0.3% of men and 0.5% of women). In both men and women the highest prevalence was observed in those aged 35 to 44 years (0.7% and 1.1% respectively).

Prevalence of psychotic disorder in the past year

  16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+ All
Males - 0.6% 0.7% 0.1% - - - 0.3%
Females 0.4% 0.2% 1.1% 0.8% 0.6% - - 0.5%
Total 0.2% 0.4% 0.9% 0.5% 0.3% - - 0.4%
Source: APMS 2007.

Applying these assumptions to the West Sussex population means approximately 2,720 adults in West Sussex are estimated to have a psychotic disorder. Breaking these figures down to the CCG areas within the county:

  • 1,630 people in the Coastal West Sussex CCG area
  • 350 people in the Crawley CCG area
  • 740 people in the Horsham and Mid Sussex CCG area

Prevalence is estimated as being significantly higher for black men (3.1%); no significant differences are estimated in women. Prevalence estimates also vary according to household income: from 0.1% of adults in the highest quintile to 0.9% of adults in the lowest quintile. This difference is noted as being more prominent among men than women.

Recorded Prevalence of Dementia, Depression and Severe Mental Illness

Caveats

  • This is recorded prevalence and higher numbers may be related to improved identification
  • Not everyone with a condition is identified and placed on the register, or present themselves to a GP
  • Some people with conditions will not be registered with a GP.

As part of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), GPs hold registers relating to dementia, depression and severe mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other psychoses). The following charts provide the percentage of patients who were recorded (in 2014/15) on these registers for each practice in the Coastal West Sussex CCG region.

Recorded Prevalence of Patients Diagnosed with Dementia at Practice Level, for the Coastal West Sussex CCG Region (2014/15)

Recorded Prevalence of Patients Diagnosed with Dementia at Practice Level, for the Coastal West Sussex CCG Region (2014/15)
Source: National General Practice Profile.

Recorded Prevalence of Patients Diagnosed with Depression at Practice Level, for the Coastal West Sussex CCG Region (2014/15)

Recorded Prevalence of Patients Diagnosed with Depression at Practice Level, for the Coastal West Sussex CCG Region (2014/15)
Source: National General Practice Profile.

Recorded Prevalence of Patients Diagnosed with Schizophrenia, Bipolar Affective Disorder and other Psychoses at Practice Level, for the Coastal West Sussex CCG Region (2014/15)

Recorded Prevalence of Patients Diagnosed with Schizophrenia, Bipolar Affective Disorder and other Psychoses at Practice Level, for the Coastal West Sussex CCG Region (2014/15)
Source: National General Practice Profile.

Hospital Admissions for Self Harm

Another key underlying indicator of mental health is the rate of emergency hospital admissions for intentional self-harm. These Hospital Episode Statistics are provided by NHS Digital. The latest data available are for 2012-13. Emergency hospital admissions for self-harm was significantly higher in Coastal West Sussex CCG, compared to Crawley CCG and Horsham and Mid Sussex CCG.

Emergency hospital admissions for intentional self-harm per 100,000 by CCG (2012-13)
Source: Hospital Episode Statistics (HES).

Public Health England also summarises data on admissions for self-harm by county. The number of admissions at local authority level are quite small and are therefore not presented. The graph below shows emergency hospital admissions for intentional self-harm in West Sussex, the South East and England. The directly standardised rate (per 100,000) of admissions due to intentional self-harm in West Sussex is higher than in the South East or England.

Directly standardised rate (per 100,000) of admissions due to intentional self-harm in West Sussex
Source: PHE Fingertips.

Suicide

Suicide is a significant cause of death in young adults and is used as an indicator of underlying rates of mental ill-health (Public Health England).

Public Health England provides age-standardised mortality statistics for this indicator and for the latest available data for CCG level (2010-2012) indicates that for Coastal West Sussex CCG the mortality rate from suicide and injury of undetermined intent (100,000) is 7.7 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 6.8 to 9.3). The large confidence intervals for the rates indicate that there may be no difference across CCGs.

Mortality from suicide in West Sussex CCGs
Source: PHE

The data for this indicator are available at local authority (district) level. However, where the observed total number of deaths in a time period is less than 25, the rates are suppressed as there are too few deaths to calculate directly standardised rates reliably. As such, only data for West Sussex County are presented in the chart below (rates over time). The overlapping confidence intervals at county level, indicate that this chart should be interpreted with caution as there may be no differences across years.

Suicide in West Sussex, the South East and England 2001-03 to 2012-14
Source: Public Health England.

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